Journal of Inorganic Materials ›› 2023, Vol. 38 ›› Issue (6): 589-605.DOI: 10.15541/jim20220331

• REVIEW •     Next Articles

X-ray Diffraction Rietveld Refinement and Its Application in Cathode Materials for Lithium-ion Batteries

YANG Zhuo(), LU Yong, ZHAO Qing, CHEN Jun()   

  1. Renewable Energy Conversion and Storage Center (RECAST), Key Laboratory of Advanced Energy Materials Chemistry (Ministry of Education), College of Chemistry, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071, China
  • Received:2022-06-14 Revised:2022-12-28 Published:2023-01-11 Online:2023-01-11
  • Contact: CHEN Jun, professor. E-mail:
  • About author:YANG Zhuo (1993-), male, PhD candidate. E-mail:
  • Supported by:
    National Natural Science Foundation of China(22121005);National Natural Science Foundation of China(22109075);National Natural Science Foundation of China(22020102002);National Natural Science Foundation of China(21835004)


2022 marks the 110th anniversary of X-ray diffraction (XRD), which is a powerful technique used to find out the nature of materials. Rietveld refinement method, as an important means of extracting material structure information, plays a significant role in establishing the relationship between structure and performance of materials. Cathode materials are a vital part of lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). In-depth understanding of their crystal structure and atomic distribution is extremely helpful to promote the development of cathode materials for LIBs. Cathode materials for LIBs are generally the hosts of lithium. Studies on lithium occupation and transfer are inseparable from a deep understanding of its structural characteristics. This review summarizes XRD Rietveld structure refinement and its application in cathode materials for LIBs. XRD Rietveld structure refinement in synthesis, degradation, and structural modification of cathode materials are analyzed by using several types of typical cathode materials as examples. XRD Rietveld method could provide useful structural information of the cathode materials, including phase ratio in composite and crystallographic parameters (e.g., cell parameters, key atomic occupation, and atomic coordinates). Therefore, exploring structure of cathode materials assisted with XRD Rietveld refinement method is of great significance for the development of high-performance cathode materials for LIBs. Finally, the opportunities and challenges in the field of X-ray diffraction technology in detecting structure of cathode materials for LIBs are prospected.

Key words: X-ray diffraction, Rietveld refinement, lithium-ion battery, cathode material, review

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