Journal of Inorganic Materials ›› 2023, Vol. 38 ›› Issue (3): 243-255.DOI: 10.15541/jim20220607

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Progress in GaN Single Crystals: HVPE Growth and Doping

QI Zhanguo1(), LIU Lei1, WANG Shouzhi1(), WANG Guogong1, YU Jiaoxian2, WANG Zhongxin1, DUAN Xiulan1, XU Xiangang1, ZHANG Lei1()   

  1. 1. Institute of Novel Semiconductors, State Key Laboratory of Crystal Material, Shandong University, Jinan 250100, China
    2. School of Materials Science and Engineering, Qilu University of Technology (Shandong Academy of Sciences), Jinan 250353, China
  • Received:2022-10-17 Revised:2022-11-20 Published:2023-01-17 Online:2023-01-17
  • Contact: WANG Shouzhi, professor. E-mail:;
    ZHANG Lei, associate professor. E-mail:
  • About author:QI Zhanguo (1999-), male, PhD candidate. E-mail:
  • Supported by:
    National Natural Science Foundation of China(51872164);National Natural Science Foundation of China(52202265)


Compared with the first and second generation semiconductor materials, the third generation semiconductor materials exhibit higher breakdown field strength, higher saturated electron drift velocity, outstanding thermal conductivity, and wider band gap, suitable for manufacturing of electronic devices with high frequency, high power, radiation resistance, corrosion resistant properties, optoelectronic devices and light emitting devices. As one of the representatives of the third generation of semiconductor materials, gallium nitride (GaN) is an ideal substrate material for preparing blue-green laser, radio frequency (RF) microwave and power electronic devices. It has broad application prospects in laser display, 5G communication, phased array radar, aerospace, etc. Hydride vapor phase epitaxy (HVPE) method is the most promising method for growth of GaN crystals due to its simple growth equipment, mild growth conditions and fast growth rate. Due to the widely used quartz reactors, unintentionally doped GaN obtained by HVPE method inevitably has donor impurities (Si and O). Therefore, the grown GaN shows n-type electrical properties, high carrier concentration and low conductivity, which limits its application in high-frequency and high-power devices. Currently, doping is the most common method to improve the electrical performance of semiconductor materials, through which different types of GaN single crystal substrates can be obtained with different dopants to improve their electrochemical characteristics and meet the different needs of market applications. In this article, the basic structure and properties of GaN semiconductor crystal material are introduced, and the recent progress of the high quality GaN crystals grown by HVPE method is reviewed; and the doping characteristics, dopant types, growth process and the influence of doped atoms on the electrical properties of GaN are introduced. Finally, the challenges and opportunities faced by the HVPE method to grow doped GaN crystals are briefly described, and the future developments in several directions are prospected.

Key words: gallium nitride, hydride vapor phase epitaxy, doping, crystal growth, review

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