Molybdenum disulfide (MoS2), a new binary transition-metal compound,has attracted much attention due to its unique physical and chemical properties. MoS2 with different morphology structures were firstly reviewed, including inorganic fullerene-like, sphere-like, flower-like, wire, plate, rod, tube and so on. And then, the methods used to prepare MoS2 nanomaterials were discussed, including chemical vapor deposition method, sulfurization process, exfoliation, electrodeposition, hydrothermal method, and solvothermal method. The applications of MoS2 nanostructures in various fields were also summaried, such as lubrication, catalytic and photoelectric devices. Finally, the outlook for the research of this molybdenum disulfide nanomaterial was proposed.