无机材料学报 ›› 2022, Vol. 37 ›› Issue (3): 241-254.DOI: 10.15541/jim20210590

• 综述 • 上一篇    下一篇

基于粉末成形的激光增材制造陶瓷技术研究进展

曹继伟1,2(), 王沛1,2, 刘志远1,2, 刘长勇1,2, 吴甲民3,4(), 陈张伟1,2()   

  1. 1.深圳大学 增材制造研究所, 深圳 518060
    2.广东省电磁控制与智能机器人重点实验室, 深圳 518060
    3.华中科技大学 材料科学与工程学院, 材料成形与模具技术国家重点实验室, 武汉 430074
    4.华中科技大学 增材制造陶瓷材料教育部工程研究中心, 武汉 430074
  • 收稿日期:2021-09-26 修回日期:2021-10-18 出版日期:2022-03-20 网络出版日期:2021-11-01
  • 通讯作者: 吴甲民, 副教授. E-mail: jiaminwu@hust.edu.cn; 陈张伟, 教授. E-mail: chen@szu.edu.cn
  • 作者简介:曹继伟(1989-), 男, 博士. E-mail: caojiwei@szu.edu.cn
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金(51975384);国家自然科学基金(51975230);广东省自然科学基金(2020A1515011547);深圳市基础研究(JCYJ20190808144009478);深圳市高校稳定支持项目(20200731211324001);深大-台北科大合作项目(2021007)

Research Progress on Powder-based Laser Additive Manufacturing Technology of Ceramics

CAO Jiwei1,2(), WANG Pei1,2, LIU Zhiyuan1,2, LIU Changyong1,2, WU Jiamin3,4(), CHEN Zhangwei1,2()   

  1. 1. Additive Manufacturing Institute, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen 518060, China
    2. Guangdong Key Laboratory of Electromagnetic Control and Intelligent Robot, Shenzhen 518060, China
    3. State Key Leboratory of Materials Processing and Die & Mould Technology, College of Materials Science and Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074, China
    4. Engineering Research Center for Additive Manufacturing Ceramic Materials, Ministry of Education, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074, China
  • Received:2021-09-26 Revised:2021-10-18 Published:2022-03-20 Online:2021-11-01
  • Contact: WU Jiamin, associate professor. E-mail: jiaminwu@hust.edu.cn; CHEN Zhangwei, professor. E-mail: chen@szu.edu.cn
  • About author:CAO Jiwei (1989-), male, PhD. E-mail: caojiwei@szu.edu.cn
  • Supported by:
    National Natural Science Foundation of China(51975384);National Natural Science Foundation of China(51975230);Natural Science Foundation of Guangdong Province(2020A1515011547);Basic Research Foundation of Shenzhen(JCYJ20190808144009478);University Support Fund of Shenzhen City(20200731211324001);NTUT-SZU Joint Research Program(2021007)

摘要:

陶瓷以其优异的热物理化学性能在航空航天、能源、环保以及生物医疗等领域具有极大的应用潜力。随着这些领域相关技术的快速发展, 其核心零件部件外形结构设计日益复杂、内部组织逐步走向定制化、梯度化。陶瓷具有硬度高、脆性大等特点, 较难通过传统的加工成形方法实现异形结构零件的制造, 最终限制了陶瓷材料的工程应用范围。激光增材制造技术作为一种快速发展的增材制造技术, 在复杂精密陶瓷零部件的制造中具有显著优势: 无模、精度高、响应快以及周期短, 同时能够实现陶瓷零件组织结构灵活调配, 有望解决上述异形结构陶瓷零件成形问题。本文综述了多种基于粉末成形的激光增材制造陶瓷技术: 基于粉末床熔融的激光选区烧结和激光选区熔化; 基于定向能量沉积的激光近净成形技术。主要讨论了各类激光增材陶瓷技术的成形原理与特点, 综述了激光选区烧结技术中陶瓷坯体后处理致密化工艺以及激光选区熔化和激光近净成形技术这两种技术中所打印陶瓷坯体基体裂纹开裂行为分析及其控制方法的研究进展, 对比分析了激光选区烧结、激光选区熔化以及激光近净成形技术在成形陶瓷零件的技术特征, 最后展望了激光增材制造陶瓷技术的未来发展趋势。

关键词: 激光增材制造, 激光选区烧结, 激光选区熔化, 激光近净成形技术, 陶瓷, 综述

Abstract:

Ceramics, with its excellent thermal, physical and chemical properties, have great potential applications in various fields, such as aerospace, energy, environmental protection and bio-medicine. With the development of relevant technology in these fields, the structural design of core components is increasingly complex, and the internal microstructures gradually become customized and gradient. However, the hard and brittle features of ceramics make it difficult to realize the forming of special-shaped parts by traditional manufacturing methods, which in turn limits further application. As a rapidly developing additive manufacturing technology, laser additive manufacturing technology presents a momentous advantage in the manufacturing process of extremely precision ceramic components: free molding without mold and support, quick response feature and short developing cycle, etc. At the same time, the technology can realize the flexible deployment of ceramic parts, which is expected to solve the problems mentioned above. Three kinds of powder-based laser additive manufacturing techniques of ceramic were reviewed in this paper: selective laser sintering and selective laser melting based on powder bed fusion technology; laser engineered net shaping based on direct energy deposition technology. The forming principle and characteristics were mainly discussed; the research progress of ceramic green body densification process in selective laser sintering technology and the forming principle, propagation mechanism and control methods of ceramic green body cracks in selective laser melting, and laser engineered net shaping technology were reviewed; the technical characteristics of selective laser sintering, selective laser melting and laser engineered net shaping technologies in shaping of ceramic parts were compared and analyzed; and the future development trends of laser additive manufacturing technology of ceramic parts were prospected.

Key words: laser additive manufacturing, selective laser sintering, selective laser melting, laser engineered net shaping, ceramic, review

中图分类号: