郝策, 刘自若, 刘炜, 史彦涛*
HAO Ce, LIU Ziruo, LIU Wei, SHI Yantao*
摘要： 燃料电池能够将化学能转化为电能,是一种绿色高效的能量转换装置。但是由于受到阴极上氧还原反应(ORR)迟缓动力学的限制,燃料电池需要使用Pt等贵金属作为催化剂,这就导致其成本显著增加。碳基负载单原子催化剂(C-SACs)展现出高原子利用率和高选择性等优异的性能。另外,C-SACs在不同pH环境下都能显示出优秀的ORR催化活性,因而被视为贵金属催化剂的经济替代品。本文介绍了近年来提升C-SACs的 ORR催化性能的策略,包括选择不同种类的金属中心原子,调控金属中心的配位结构以及对载体进行杂原子掺杂。同时介绍了这些C-SACs在旋转盘电极和电池器件中的性能。最后对C-SACs在实际应用中的可行性以及潜在的挑战进行了展望和总结。
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