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结构陶瓷——承载人类文明的基石

董绍明1, 王京阳2, 倪德伟1   

  1. 1.中国科学院 上海硅酸盐研究所, 上海 200050;
    2.中国科学院 金属研究所, 沈阳 110016
  • 出版日期:2024-04-19 网络出版日期:2024-04-19
  • 作者简介:董绍明, 研究员, 博士生导师, 中国工程院院士。长期从事陶瓷基复合材料基础与工程应用研究。

DONG Shaoming1,WANG Jingyang2, NI Dewei1   

  1. 1. Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050, China;
    2. Institute of Metal Research.Chinese Academy of Sciences, shenyang 110016,China
  • Published:2024-04-19 Online:2024-04-19

摘要: 陶瓷, 作为人类文明史上具有里程碑意义的人工合成材料, 不仅承载着中华民族的骄傲, 更是中华民族智慧和创新精神的集中体现。经过数千年的沉淀与演化, 陶瓷已发展成为一个博大精深、 丰富多彩的材料体系, 传统陶瓷与先进陶瓷交相辉映, 共同构筑起人类文明的物质基石。其中, 先进结构陶瓷更是以其耐高温、抗腐蚀以及优异的力学性能等特性, 在金属材料和高分子材料难以承 受的高温、腐蚀等极端环境中展现出独特的优势, 成为现代科技文明中不可或缺的关键材料。而陶瓷基复合材料, 不仅继承了结构陶瓷的诸多优良特性, 而且克服了其脆性问题, 因此在全球范围内 受到广泛关注。在航空航天、交通运输和先进核能等领域, 陶瓷基复合材料发挥着举足轻重的作用, 为推动科技进步贡献了重要力量。

关键词: Structural, Ceramics—the, Cornerstone, of, Human, Civilization

Abstract: Ceramics are one of the earliest synthetic materials in human civilization, which is originated in China. They represent not only the nation's glory but also the testament to the wisdom and innovation of her people. After millennia, ceramics have evolved into a vital material system encompassing both traditional and advanced varieties, with structural ceramics holding a key position. Their high-temperature resistance, corrosion resistance, and superior mechanical properties endow them indispensable in harsh environments where metals and polymers are still in struggle, underscoring their role as a cornerstone of modern technological progress. Ceramic matrix composites have mitigated the brittleness of structural ceramics, garnering global attention for their irreplaceable advantages, particularly in extreme conditions like ultra-high temperatures, intense radiation, and severe corrosion, across sectors such as aerospace, transportation, and advanced nuclear energy.